Analysis of μ-Contact Printed Protein Patterns by SPR Imaging with a LED Light Source

Abstract

We demonstrate the characterization of μ-contact printed protein patterns and analysis of protein−protein interactions by two-dimensional (2-D) surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Advancements in SPRi image quality from employing a light emitting diode (LED) as the light source are described. We show that a LED offers an ideal point source that can eliminate interference artifacts and speckles found when using a laser source. The attainable thickness resolution in fixed-angle imaging is comparable to that of a monochromatic source, providing a solid foundation for quantitative analysis with the system. The SPR imaging technique reported here affords sub-nanometer thickness sensitivity and micrometer lateral resolution, allowing for convenient studies of biomolecular interactions and surface morphologies of ultrathin films. Spatially well-defined protein patterns of bacterial toxins were obtained by microcontact printing using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on a functionalized self-assembled monolayer on Au. The influence of protein concentration in the inking solution on transfer efficiency was investigated, and a nonlinear correlation was observed between the solution concentration and the amount of protein immobilized on the surface. Quantitative analysis of protein interaction was performed with toxin-specific antibody, showing a concentration-dependent relationship that verifies the retention of biological activity of the protein after printing. The study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of using LEDs as light sources in SPR imaging, opening doors for developing compact SPR instruments for direct, sensitive, and label-free detection of biohazardous molecules.

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Analysis of μ-Contact Printed Protein Patterns by SPR Imaging with a LED Light Source