Biology

Microstamp patterns of biomolecules for high-resolution neuronal networks

Abstract

A microstamping technique has been developed for high-resolution patterning of proteins on glass substrates for the localisation of neurons and their axons and dendrites. The patterning process uses a microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane stamp with micrometer length features to transfer multiple types of biomolecules to silanederivatised substrates, using glutaraldehyde as a homobifunctional linker. To test the efficacy of the procedure, substrates are compared in which poly-d-lysine (PDL) was physisorbed and patterned by photoresist with those stamped with PDL. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled poly-I-lysine was used to verify the presence and uniformity of the patterns on the glass substrates. As a biological assay, B104 neuroblastoma cells were plated on stamped and physisorbed glass coverslips. Pattern compliance was determined as the percentage of cells on the pattern 8h after plating. Results indicate that the stamping and photoresist patterning procedure are equivalent. Substrates stamped with PDL had an average pattern compliance of 52.6±4.4%, compared to 54.6±8.1% for physisorbed substrates. Measures of background avoidance were also equivalent. As the procedure permits successive stamping of multiple proteins, each with its own micropattern, it should be very useful for defining complex substrates to assist in cell patterning and other cell guidance studies.

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Microstamp patterns of biomolecules for high-resolution neuronal networks

Using Microcontact Printing to Pattern the Attachment of Mammalian Cells to Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiolates on Transparent Films of Gold and Silver

Abstract

This paper describes a convenient methodology for patterning substrates for cell culture that allows the positions and dimensions of attached cells to be controlled. The method uses self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of terminally substituted alkanethiolates (R(CH2)11-15S-) adsorbed on optically transparent films of gold or silver to control the properties of the substrates. SAMs terminated in methyl groups adsorb protein and SAMs terminated in oligo(ethylene glycol) groups resist entirely the adsorption of protein. This methodology uses microcontact printing (microCP)-an experimentally simple, nonphotolithographic process-to pattern the formation of SAMs at the micrometer scale; microCP uses an elastomeric stamp having at its surface a pattern in relief to transfer an alkanethiol to a surface of gold or silver in the same pattern. Patterned SAMs having hydrophobic, methyl-terminated lines 10, 30, 60, and 90 microm in width and separated by protein-resistant regions 120 microm in width were prepared and coated with fibronectin; the protein adsorbed only to the methyl-terminated regions. Bovine capillary endothelial cells attached only to the fibronectin-coated, methyl-terminated regions of the patterned SAMs. The cells remained attached to the SAMs and confined to the pattern of underlying SAMs for at least 5-7 days. Because the substrates are optically transparent, cells could be visualized by inverted microscopy and by fluorescence microscopy after fixing and staining with fluorescein-labeled phalloidin.

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Using Microcontact Printing to Pattern the Attachment of Mammalian Cells to Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiolates on Transparent Films of Gold and Silver

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